The application and development of engraving printing 3

Section 3 Engraving of Newspapers, Maps and Prints

After the invention of printing technology, its application field continued to expand, and it began to be used for newspaper printing during the Tang Dynasty (713-741). Later, prints and map printing appeared.

First, the engraving of newspapers

China and the world’s earliest printed newspapers were “Kaiyuan Zazhe” printed in engravings during the Kaiyuan period of the Tang dynasty. The historical data originated from “Sun Kezhi’s collection of works” written by Tang Wenxi, a Tang writer. In "Sun Kezhi's Anthology", there is a "Reading Kaiyuan Zhaibao" article. Yun:

"There are dozens of books written between Yu and Han. It is not the beginning or the end of the day. It's slightly cursed: On one day, the emperor cultivated Ji Tian and performed the nine-push ceremony. On a certain day, the emperor returned from the east. There is a difference; one day, the prime minister and the 100-odd king contend for a moment. So where dozens of articles are unknown, and those who know the book come from foreign countries, and all of them have opened the yuan political affairs, which was then reported to the outsiders. "Kai Yuan Lu" After checking, the rules can be repeated."

“Kaiyuan Di Zao” was published by the rulers of the Tang Dynasty during the first year of the Kaiyuan Period. It was not registered on its own since it was issued during the Tang Kaiyuan period. Later, it was called “Kaiyuan Di Zao”. Among them, "Kaiyuan" is the name of the year, and "zhezabao" is another name for the newspaper. The term "report" was originally referred to as "邸". It began in the Western Han Dynasty and is an office established by the ancient Chinese local government in Beijing.

Tang Yanshi Gu Yun: "The main officials of the county are in the capital of Beijing. They are all in the county, so they pass the news to Chaoju." Ge Gongzheng also said: "If you pass up to the cloud, the message between the monarchs and the emperor will be conveyed. Historically, there were various names such as banknotes, daily newspapers, cabinet notes, miscellaneous newspapers, articles, newspapers, newspapers, newspapers, newspapers, newspapers, newspapers, newspapers, etc. India will be responsible for the transmission of the history of Shangdu officials. Most of the contents are personal words and deeds of the emperor, used to describe the royal family and ministers everywhere. Sun Yuxiu wrote in the book "The Origin of Chinese Carving Edition" and described the fact that there were seven pages of Kaiyuan Zaobao in Jiangling Yangling and said:

There is a recent Jiangling Yang collection "Kaiyuan miscellaneous newspaper" seven leaves (Sun Kezhi set read Kaiyuan miscellaneous messages immediately this also). The cloud is carved by the Tang dynasty, with 13 lines and 15 characters in each line. The words are as large as money and there are border columns. Without sutures, the style is still written by Utah people...."

0249.jpg (50405 bytes) Figure 7-48 "Kaiyuan Zaozuo" copied from historical sources

Figure 7-48 is a copy of a calligrapher from the Chinese Department of Peking University, according to the description of Sun Xixiu's book “The Origins of Chinese Carvings”. It is reported that the original has been destroyed in the "ten years of turmoil" and later re-imitation (I have specially invited Mr. Luo Jianping, the Broadcasting Academy, to borrow and read this to re-imitation). According to Sun Kezhi, a writer from the Tang Dynasty, and the later description of the book "The Origin of Chinese Carvings" in the book "The Origin of Chinese Carvings", it is possible to confirm each other with the specific description of the seven "Kaiyuan Di Zao" contained in the family names of Hubei Yang. Therefore, one of the early prints of China was believed to be credible. This is nine hundred years earlier than Europe’s first newspaper.

The earliest surviving reports are the “Entering Academy” of the Dunhuang Tang Guiyi Army, now in the British Library in London, England. The paper is one of the earliest newspapers in the world today, more than 1,100 years ago. The printed newspapers that are the earliest known and clearly documented are found in the "Song of Songs, Manuscripts and Officials II." Songyun of the "Entering Academy" in "The Song Meeting Draft, Official II": Translated from "Concise China News History", 9-10 pages, Fujian People's Publishing House, 1986 edition.

"On May 18th (Shin Ning 4th year of Song Shenzong, 1071 AD) from the present-day province and Dushui Temple Sinonji, etc. Give money a thousand copies of the paper fee."

"Three years (Saoxing of the Song Dynasty, Shaoxing three years, AD 1133) On the 28th of the first month of the month, the Dali Temple, the Minister of Punishment of the Ministry of Punishment, and the principals of the affairs and principles were not allowed to report and report the crimes to be rewarded for punishment in the law in Beijing. Take a cable and choose to punish and admonish him to go to the provincial hospital for admission. He will be awarded with the squad of paramilitary officials and the officials in the Beijing lawsuit.

Around the 4th of April, the official entertainer awarded the reward for the reduction of rewards and the amount of money for crimes was paid. The Division wanted to pay 100 cents per quarter, five thousand notes, and temporarily counted in words. Settlements supporter, if not enough, that is posted, is still limited to the Ministry of Deputy Secretary Maqiu from the quarter. ""

After a period of application and development, the engraving and printing industry came to the Song Dynasty. The scope of application has become widespread. It has formed a good atmosphere and cultural atmosphere from the emperors to the general public, down to the common people, and engraving and reading. The printing of newspapers has also evolved from the official press similar to the Tang Dynasty "Kaiyuan Zazha" to the private sector. There have been many "small tabloid newspapers" that have pioneered the publication of the grapevine news and are popular with the community.

The newspapers of the Song Dynasty were numerous and varied, including the "Daipo", "Inquisition", "Provincial Exploration", "Survey" and many others. Except for the daily newspaper “Daobao”, which was compiled daily by the Song and Lower Xia Province and reported to the world, most of them were “small tabloids”. For the "tabloid" of the Song Dynasty. The Song Dynasty Zhou Linzhi's "On Hailing Collection" in the "Forbidden Tabloid" Cloud:

"The tabloids are out of the entrance hall, and they are ignorant of their generations. There are suspicions that they are younger than the past. Chinese and foreign people do not know. They must compete with small paper books and fly to report the far and near tabloids. Calling someone to leave, someone relinquishing `. Often imaginary and nonsense. The Shi Chaowen, then: `You already have tabloids!!矣`! When he examines it daily, it says something else or not. If it is used as a matter of course, then the matter is not involved; if it is not secret, why is it that it is believed to be a letter? This is a matter of treatment, although it may be insignificant, it cannot be ignored. The minister foolishly desires to have a deep command of the division, sin is rewarded, and the pain is forbidden. The command of the court can be obtained and heard, and can't be measured; the trust can be obtained and the fraud can't be obtained; the state honors the people and the people listen to it."

The tabloids who published the grapevine news were often banned by the imperial court because of leakages of state secrets and facts, as well as real and false statements. However, because the content of the tabloids was mostly news that was not contained in the official newspapers, together with the fast reporting speed, For the majority of the people, they are delighted to see it, and the ban is repeated. People from various business lines contained in "The West Lake Old Man's Victory Record" have the ``Zhaochaobao`` in the 440th line of Kyoto, which shows that there have been a few newspaper printings in the Song Dynasty. In order to disseminate the news faster, the Song Dynasty also invented a "waxed" printing made of beeswax and rosin fused onto wood. The Song Dynasty Chronicles recorded the one thing in the process of the imperial examination of the first year of Shaoxing in the Song Dynasty (1094): "Bi is the champion, Zhao Yu is the second. He sang the first song, and everyone was eager to pass on it. The newspaper was engraved by the waxed version, and it was gradually turned into a word, and the water was not inked, but the rapist shouted: `The first person in the game, Zhao Yan, who is the second person in the class, is unknown to anyone who knows him. Bi Yan Zhao Ye also. "This happened in the capital of Kaifeng. The ancients attached great importance to the imperial examination. Before the publication of the result of the examination, in order to report quickly, some people had prepared the wax version. Once announced, they immediately wrote and printed on the wax version. In order to speed up, the quality was ignored, and the first three characters of “gradual” characters were missed in the first prize. As a result, the proclaimer read out loudly the “miraculously the second person Zhao Yan”. Unexpectedly. Coincidentally, the second person, Zhao Yan, was really defamed because of his rebellion. He was told by the proclaimer that the stenciled printing of the phrase “The best player to complete Zhao Kuang” was a mistake. This incident was documented by Mr. He??, who is known as the old farmer of Han Qing, and left the historical data of the tabloids similar to today’s “outside” newspapers printed by wax printing in the Song Dynasty.

By the end of the Ming Dynasty, movable type printing began to be used in newspaper printing. At the beginning of the Qing dynasty, Gu Yanwu Zeng Yun: "If you remember the past, there was a letter in the eleventh year (1638) of Chongzhen...."

After the printing of the newspapers was suspended during the Yuan and Ming dynasties, they came to the Qing dynasty and received corresponding developments. There were many kinds of coexistences such as Beijing News, Gongmen Banknotes, Tangbao, and Zhanmen Banknote. Among them: The Beijing News (Figure 7-49) is the official newspaper of the Central Government of the Qing Dynasty. It is a book-type pamphlet and is issued daily. The number of pages is between two and three pages, and as many as ten pages, ranging from about sixty-seven inches to three inches. It is printed on thin bamboo paper, wrapped in thin yellow paper, and covered with wooden stamps. Two words. The printing of the "Beijing News" is undertaken by private newspaper houses. Due to the timeliness of the newspapers and the fact that the Beijing News has more than 10,000 characters, there are more than one newspaper room for printing the Beijing News, and the content of the Beijing News published by each is not the same.

The Qing Dynasty's "Beijing News" used typographic printing. Qing Yuandong said in his book Shu Yin Cong Shuo said: "In recent days, dailies are often printed in movable type so that repeated printing can be repeated. It is a last resort, that is, there is ambiguity and can be forgiven." The newspaper was printed in wooden movable type. The font was skewed and the ink was diffuse. The quality was poor. In addition to grab the time, proofreading is not fine, more typos. However, due to its novel content, it has sold well and has more than 10,000 copies. In the twenty-three years of Guangxu (1897), there were 6,077 issues. With the introduction and development of Western modern printing, by the end of the Qing Dynasty, the "Beijing News" was tampered with printing on the typeface.

The "Door of the Palace" is similar to the "Inquisition" of the Song Dynasty. It is usually read with the "Beijing News" and issued in Beijing. "Every day under the Shige Banknotes is not only written out, but old ones do not have to write, and can be engraved in a type of plaster that is easily affected by the knife's clay plate. This is commonly known as the dried bean curd version. When the fire is baked, it is firm and the ink is dark. Another type of printing with movable type, the font is smaller than the mud version, and more neat. " Dr. Xu Yujian edited "China's history of printing history series" on page 277. 1997 edition. This record proves that the Qing Dynasty's Gongmen Qiang was printed using movable characters and two kinds of techniques such as a waxed version and a muddy version of "beans and dried beans." Among them, the dried bean curd version is a time-grabbing process that eliminates the need to engrave the hand-written words in the woodblock craft and put the words on top of the wood. It is written directly on the board by skilled engravers. The quality can be imagined.

0252.jpg (23680 bytes) Figure 7-49 Beijing News

The "Tang Bao" is also called "Titang Newspaper" and "Pu". Similar to the Song Dynasty's Provincial Exploration. It is delivered and distributed through stations across the country.

"Xianmen Banknote" is a local tabloid. It is similar to the Song Dynasty's "Survey" and it contains special news in the region. In the Daoguang period, the "Xianmen Banknote" published by Shumen, Guangdong Province, was printed in useful wax prints.

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