Steel drum packaging development trend
Nanjing Yangzi Barrel Factory Zhang Lianyuan
Abstract: With the development of world trade, the global environmental protection calls are rising, the international standardization of steel drums, the re-use of steel drums leads to an increase in the production of medium-sized barrels (referring to wall thickness), and the partial replacement of 55-gallon steel drums and â€œgreenâ€ The emergence of steel drums will be the main trend in the development of steel drum packaging.
With the rising global environmental protection voices and the increasing awareness of various environmental hazards, a global common program is being implemented â€“ that is, to protect the environment, protect the planet, and leave a legacy for future generations. To survive the environment. The countries of the world have promulgated a series of environmental protection laws in different regions and to varying degrees, and imposed severe penalties on factories that pollute the environment and have poor governance, such as deadlines for treatment, suspension of production, and closure. All factories that cause serious pollution will relocate or replace cities or nature reserves within a time limit. Various countries have set up various non-government green peace organizations. They have also implemented environmental protection supervision over the government. Once they find that the government has violated environmental protection practices, they will immediately protest and stop...
These conditions have forced the once-prosperous steel drum manufacturing industry to include the development trend of steel drum packaging on the daily agenda. We believe that the future development trend of steel drum packaging lies in how to resolve the contradiction between development and environmental protection, so that the development of steel drums can maintain the current speed and it is possible to develop faster with the development of world trade.
We know that when our barrel factory sells steel drums to the bots (mostly petrochemical industry, chemical industry), they fill the products and sell them all over the world. After the end users take the products out, there are always some products due to the viscosity. Or other reasons are stuck in the barrel, it is impossible to completely exhaust. Some of these empty barrels have been abandoned and piled up (the third world country steel drum recycling system is not perfect for various reasons, such conditions are more obvious), and some are collected and cleaned by steel drum recyclers. The steel drums piled up in the open air are allowed to run in the wind and rain, causing the residual liquid in the barrel to flow everywhere, and seeping into the ground to cause environmental pollution. When the recycler repairs and cleans the recycling drum, it often forms secondary pollution. A large amount of various solvents are often used for cleaning to dilute the chemical in the barrel. These solvents are the main source of secondary pollution, and although some solvents can be reused multiple times, they are ultimately emitted. The secondary pollutants plus some of the residual liquid in the barrel can be used, but most of them cannot be used due to serious pollution. The complex composition of these waste liquids is usually not handled in a good way, but stored in a storage tank or a ground pool. Because these substances degrade in nature for a long time, such as poor storage will evaporate into the atmosphere or infiltrate into the ground to re-contaminate the environment, this storage is essentially disguised to the air, underground discharge. All of this has cast a huge shadow on the development of steel drum packaging, and the development of steel drum packaging must face environmental protection issues.
The following article will talk about the development trend of steel drum packaging around environmental protection issues.
I. International standardization of steel drums
In the early 1980s, the International Steel Barrel Conference had a clear concept on the international standardization of steel drums. They not only realized that the worldwide standardization of steel drums could not only eliminate non-tariff barriers, but also improve the versatility of steel drums for high efficiency internationally. Containerized transportation provides safe and economical packaging, and realizes that the reuse of steel drums also involves standardization problems. Otherwise, steel drum repair and cleaning equipment cannot adapt to steel drums of various specifications, resulting in increased cleaning and repair costs of steel drums and reduced reuse rate. . In this respect, Western industrialized countries have done a lot of work on the standardization of steel drums, and each has basically a relatively complete set of national standards. The relevant UN organizations have also issued a number of guiding rules documents for steel drum international standardization. These standards and rules have played a positive role in guiding the production and safe use of steel drums in various countries. And in the production system of the national economy, a number of auxiliary facilities such as production, filling, transportation and reuse are formed. It is not a simple matter to promote international standardization, which has caused many industrialized countries to abandon a large number of existing industrial facilities and re-equip them. In terms of moving towards international standardization, the European Community countries have recognized earlier. Due to the common interest in the European region, the first regional steel drum standardization, the steel drum produced by the country that implements the prEN210 size standard can be used in any European CEN (European Standardization Committee). Member States were repaired and reused. This has greatly improved the use value of steel drums produced in Europe and reduced the environmental pollution of residual chemicals. The emergence of prEN210 standard has provided useful experience for international standardization. He proved that international standardization of steel drums is achievable. Of course, international standardization of steel drums is more extensive and broader. He is closely related to modulus selection, dimensional coordination, reuse, and structural improvement. Only when these problems are basically implemented can it be drafted. standard.
Second, the repeated use of steel drums led to an increase in the production of medium-sized barrels
Since the 1970s, due to the breakthrough of DC automatic welding machine and round edge technology, the wide application of container transportation has increased the output of light barrels. The main reason is that the end user puts the demanding requirements on the cleanliness of the raw materials. The reusable refrigerating barrels are not clean enough, and the fillers have to use new steel drums with high cleanliness to fill the products. In order to reduce the packaging cost, the filler is more willing to use the low-priced light barrels. The breakthrough of the automatic welding machine and the round crimping technology has created favorable conditions for the barrel manufacturers to produce light barrels, which is produced once in the barrel industry. Slight light barrels create an excellent opportunity, and many barrel makers around the world are scrambling to make thinner steel drums. But the good times are not long, and the global wave of environmental protection has begun to impact light-weight businesses, and the momentum is growing. This is mainly because the light barrel material is continuously thinning, from the initial 1.0 mm thickness to the thinnest of only 0.6 mm. The overall rigidity, hydrostatic pressure, vacuum strength, impact drop and other properties of the steel drum cannot be the same as the medium size. Compared to the barrel. In the process of filling, transportation and use, they are subjected to impact damage, rust and deformation to varying degrees. Many barrels have lost their repair value after pouring out raw materials, and become a real disposable package, which is broken into steelmaking raw materials. Some light barrels can be reused after repairing and cleaning, but they are often unpopular because of their reduced cleanliness and reliability. Recyclers are often reluctant to recycle light drums because the cost of repairing and cleaning light buckets is not reduced, but their use is declining, especially for cleaning chemicals in light drums. Losing the value of reuse and being broken as the value of steelmaking raw materials. When this situation is not subsidized by the government's environmental protection, few people are willing to do it. In a sense, the golden age of light barrels has passed, and people will re-recognize light barrels. The increase in the number of reuse of steel drums in the future will lead to an increase in medium-sized barrel production.
Third, the rolled steel barrel will face the challenge of the new structural steel barrel
The traditional crimping structure is the main method for the manufacture of 55 gallon steel drums in the world. In recent years, due to a major breakthrough in the crimping structure, the five-layer flat crimping edge has been improved to a 7-layer circular curling edge, and the filler has also been modified from brown sugar bone cement to latex and resin glue, which greatly improved the comprehensive performance index of the steel drum and basically solved the steel. The quality of the barrel has long been embarrassing. However, the leakage has not been completely eliminated, which is mainly caused by the crimping structure itself.
The principle of crimping is to use the plastic deformation of the steel plate to produce a pressing force to tightly join the barrel and the top of the barrel. In order to minimize the gap at the joint, it is usually necessary to put a good elastic packing to achieve the sealing. Good results, the structure itself has a temporary seal meaning. When the crimping is formed by the last shaping roller (the pressure roller has not left the crimping edge), the crimping is presented in two kinds of sealing states: one is that the pressing wheel is still at the curling point, and the curling edge is removed. There is a pressing force generated by plastic deformation of the steel plate, and an external force of the pressure wheel. At this point, this point is the most compact, assuming that the curled state and the filler fractal deformation are ideal, this is the best seal; the other is the loss of the external force due to the loss of the external force of the pressure wheel, resulting in elasticity and volume Release it. The elastic deformation and plastic deformation of the steel plate are sequentially produced. When the crimping is formed under the action of various pressures of the pressure roller, most of the internal crimping is plastic deformation, and the elastic deformation is small, and the outermost steel plate is not fully surpassed by the external force. Intensity, they only partially produce plastic deformation. Once the external force disappears, they will return to the original shape under the elastic deformation, so that the curling edge is slightly loosened (the degree of looseness is determined by the nature of the material itself), and the sealing condition of the steel drum in the free state is mostly like this. of.
When the curling edge is in a tight state, the crimping gap is filled with elastic filling, and the curling gap is small enough that the contents of the barrel are not penetrated. We believe that the barrel has no leakage. When the barrel is poorly curled during production or the distribution of the filler is unreasonable, the curling gap is increased until the contents of the barrel ooze out. We consider it to be a defective barrel. In a sense, the leakage of steel drums produced by the crimping structure is absolute, and the leakage is relative, because even the non-leaking barrels are subject to changes in the temperature difference between the natural and the cold in the barrel during use. The pressure or vacuum changes drastically, causing the curling gap to increase until the contents of the barrel seep out of the barrel.
From the above analysis, it is not difficult to see that the rolled steel drum has been in a critical state since it came down from the production line. It can remain leak-proof under certain conditions. Once the condition changes, the leakage will be inevitable, and the curling barrel is essentially in the absence of leakage. In the stage of recessive leakage, the leakage is microscopic at this stage, and the naked eye is generally indistinguishable, and the naked eye sees the contents of the barrel oozing out or obviously smelling the contents of the odor barrel entering the stage of dominant leakage. It can be seen that the traditional structural rolled steel drum will face the challenge of the new structural steel drum.
Fourth, the steel barrel "large"
With the development of the global economy and the advancement of the petrochemical industry, steel drum packaging (mainly referred to here as 55 gallon steel drums) will be limited, and alternative products will emerge. This is the current non-manually transported tank in the International Dangerous Goods Maritime Regulations (IMDG) chapter 13  or the International Agreement on the International Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) with J. B.lb  is defined as "tank container". This type of metal prismatic container with a capacity of 792.6 gallons (3000 liters) is officially referred to as a "medium bulk tank" (IBCs) commonly known as a container tank.
At present, a large number of petrochemical products and intermediates are transported on land by half of the large-capacity railway tank cars, car tankers and large-diameter pipelines, and the other part is transported in steel drums, while sea transportation is basically packed in steel drums. With the development of fine chemicals and the increase in shipping volume, the 55-gallon steel drum transportation costs and pollution treatment costs are rising. We expect that medium-sized container tanks (IBCs) and large container tanks will be partially replaced in a short period of time. Packed in gallon steel drums. First of all, it has a large loading capacity. A medium-sized container tank can be estimated to hold 6750 gallons (27,000 liters), which is equivalent to 120 55-gallon drum capacity. Large container tanks can hold 40 barrels of raw materials at a time than standard containers of the same specification. Will significantly reduce transportation costs. Since the structure of the container tank is different from that of the barrel, it is mechanically transported, there is no curling deformation, and the filler is degraded and dissolved to cause leakage. It can be said to be a very safe and reliable transport container. The container tank is designed with a cleaning manhole, which is low in cleaning and can be directly processed at the user. These advantages make container tanks a huge threat to the steel drum market around the world, and it is the main competitor for the next 55 gallon steel drums. However, it cannot replace the 55-gallon steel drum. It requires large-scale lifting and transportation equipment and its associated filling and suction facilities. It is not suitable for small batches and varieties and is subject to site restrictions.
Five, green steel barrels will open a new world
As a packaging container widely used all over the world, steel drum has been nearly a hundred years old since its extension. It has been improved by several generations of inventions and improvements, but this improvement can no longer meet the requirements of environmental protection. The structure of steel drums to adapt to trade and environmental protection requirements will gradually be accepted by all countries in the world. In recent years, the rapid development of science and technology has also created favorable conditions for the reform of steel drum structure. In order to compete with IBCs, according to the development trend of steel drum packaging in the future, we envision a new type of structural barrel that combines the advantages of traditional rolled steel drums and IBCs. In the past few years, we can call this new structure barrel "green steel drum." It means no pollution or easy to manage, just as people refer to refrigerators made with alternatives to Freon refrigerants as â€œgreen refrigeratorsâ€ and foods without pigments, hormones and additives as â€œgreen foodsâ€. The â€œgreen steel drumâ€ in the concept combines the traditional top and bottom of the barrel with the curling of the barrel to change the welding. The inlet or the vent of the top of the barrel is integrated with the opener, which is directly punched and rolled on the top of the barrel. Threads, if this technique is feasible, the roll packing and seals can be eliminated to completely eliminate the leak. In order to increase the edge strength of the â€œgreen steel drumâ€, we consider that a reinforcing coil should be welded to the upper and lower ends of the steel drum, and the end of the coil is rounded to protect the bottom of the bucket from impact and human The lifting and unloading handles are used to make up for the lack of lifting and lowering of the bottom and bottom of the barrel after the curling is cancelled. The reformed â€œgreen steel drumâ€ will have seven characteristics:
1. The barrel body and the top of the barrel are welded to eliminate the crimping filler. The top and bottom of the barrel will not be loosened by the curling or the filler will be deteriorated and dissolved. Since the welding is a high-temperature fusion welding, it is not affected by the material oxide film, electrical resistivity, AC impedance and forging pressure. Even if a leakage point is generated, only a little welding is required. Since the repair welding is not affected by the filler, it is not necessary to use the full Surrounding welding, the appearance of the steel drum is good.
2. The bottom joint of the barrel is a spherical arc transition, similar to the head on the pressure vessel, completely eliminating the annular gap around the rolled steel drum. The â€œgreen steel drumâ€ pours out the contents and then cleans the barrel. The degree reached the new barrel standard.
3. The injection port and the venting port on the top of the barrel adopt an integrated sealing device, which eliminates the indispensable sealing ring on the separate sealing device, thereby reducing the leakage potential. The outlet of the closure is bottle-shaped, barrier-free, and the dead corner can make the contents of the barrel flow, saving raw materials and reducing pollution caused by residues.
4. Since the â€œgreen steel drumâ€ adopts a reasonable head-type structure, it is well known that this structure is hardly deformed when the hydrostatic pressure test is performed, and the rolled steel drum is severely deformed during the hydrostatic test. Wrinkling the edge portion and damaging the crimping structure cause the steel drum to leak. The â€œgreen steel drumâ€ is resistant to water pressure and its airtightness is greatly increased, so that it can withstand higher vapor pressure and vacuum of the contents during use.
5. The steel drum reinforcement coil reserves the process hole during manufacture, and welding to the top of the bucket can play various roles. When there is water on the top of the bucket, the top of the bucket is in the shape of a head, and the water flows from the highest point to the periphery, and is drained through the reinforcing coil process hole. If there is no water at the top of the barrel, there will be no problem of vacuum negative pressure in the barrel. The contents of the barrel will naturally not be polluted, and the empty barrel will not rust. At the bottom of the barrel, because the process hole is well ventilated, the bottom of the barrel will not condense water droplets, reduce the corrosion of the bottom of the barrel, and prolong the service life of the steel drum. This structure makes it unnecessary to stack the barrel when the raw material barrel is stacked in the open air to ensure that the top of the barrel is not accumulated. water. Due to the double reinforcing effect of the reinforcing coil and the head structure, the impact drop strength of the steel drum is greatly improved, which provides a reliable guarantee for the transportation of dangerous goods.
6. The â€œGreen Gangueâ€ has opened up a wider range of uses for steel drums due to major changes in structure and manufacturing processes. It can be made of stainless steel, titanium alloy, aluminum alloy and other metal materials according to the characteristics of food, fine chemical raw materials and strong corrosive chemicals to meet the needs of different industries. Before this, some materials cannot be made by traditional crimping technology. .
7. In the past, some manufacturers' products reached the temperature of Baidu when filling. The high temperature caused the sealing filler to melt, and the aging deteriorated, which caused leakage. Especially when brown sugar bone glue was used as the filler, this situation was most obvious. "Green steel drum" uses welding without fillers, is not afraid of high temperature during filling, and is not afraid of chemical corrosion and dissolution of fillers. Of course, there is no worries.
The concept of â€œgreen steel drumsâ€ may shock some barrel makers, because once they enter industrial production, many barrel makers will face a large reduction in traditional crimping barrels, and most of the original process equipment cannot be used. This requires an adaptation process. . Our barrel industry has traditionally relied on the development of the petrochemical and chemical industries to meet their needs to the fullest. From the invention of steel drums to the current annual production of steel drums in the world of hundreds of millions (including partially reused barrels), mainly benefited from The rapid development of the petrochemical industry, the global environmental awareness has been growing in recent years, environmental laws continue to improve, if our barrel industry does not accelerate product replacement, it can not develop in parallel with the petrochemical industry. We will face cruel competition for survival, and other manufacturing industries will take advantage of it and replace our production of satisfactory packaging containers for the petrochemical industry.
The development trend of steel drum packaging is to continuously adopt new standards, new technologies and new processes to develop non-polluting and easy-to-treat â€œgreen steel drumsâ€ that meet the needs of petrochemical industry and chemical industry development.
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